The aim of this article is to assess the structure of biodiversity of field protective forest shelter belts to determine the directions of increasing their reclamation and conservation potential in the organic agricultural landscape. Methods of comparative ecology (synecological approach, assessment of α-diversity), forestry, geobotany, ornithology and statistical analysis are used. Changes in species diversity of plants and birds in forest shelter belts around organic fields are characterized. It is established that plantations with developed undergrowth and understorey are transformed due to the loss of up to 43.5% of trees, liquefaction of the edificatory tier. Transformer species with a wide phytocenotic range predominate in the tree stands. The grass tier is dominated by ruderants (36.5%) and adventive species (24.5%). The share (60%) of species with a mixed life strategy indicates changes in moisture conditions and soil trophism. A 2.4% of shade-loving plants and the presence of 14.7% nitrophils indicate an imbalance in the structure of forest shelter belts. Depletion of species composition, ecological and trophic structure of bird groups testify to the decrease in the capacity of forest shelter belts and their statio diversity, reduction of protective, environment-creating functions and other ecosystem services. In the three-tiered dense forest shelter belts with developed undergrowth and understorey, 10–27 species of birds nest. In general, avifauna is represented by 2 ecological groups (93.1% dendrophiles, 6.9% sclerophiles), divided into 5 types of nesting strategy (with a predominance of hollow-nests 37.0–53.3%), and 5 types of feeding (with a predominance of entomophagous 70.4–90.0%). Twenty-nine species have been identified on nesting, 27 of which are subject to protection at the level of international agreements. There are no adventive species, the index of synanthropization of avifauna is high – 0.85–1.0. For organic technologies to increase the potential of biological protection of fields from entomological pests by attracting insectivorous birds is relevant.
|Source||Folia Forestalia Polonica, Series A – Forestry|
|Type of article
||Forest shelter belts in organic agricultural landscape: structure of biodiversity and their ecological role|
|Publisher||The Committee on Forestry Sciences and Wood Technology of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Forest Research Institute in Sekocin Stary|