Damage to regeneration in the area after large-scale decline of Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. stands in the mountains



The paper presents harmful factors relevant to the health of regeneration on decline forest areas in the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains. It was found, that adverse atmospheric conditions and deer were the main reasons of damages occurring in most stands. Pest insects were only of marginal consequence, although they eliminated the large parts of regeneration. On decline forest areas there were distinguished three zones with different intensity of damages caused by atmospheric factors. These zones are linked to altitudinal gradient. The intensity of damages increase on higher elevations. In distinguished zones, there were specified forest management objectives and general rules for their implementation.

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