Zmienność genetyczna i ekotypowa buka zwyczajnego (Fagus sylvatica L.) w Polsce

Genetic and ecotype diversity of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Poland


  • Małgorzata Sułkowska Instytut Badawczy Leśnictwa, Sękocin Stary, ul. Braci Leśnej 3, 05-090 Raszyn, Fax +48 227200397
  • Jan Kowalczyk Instytut Badawczy Leśnictwa, Zakład Hodowli Lasu i Genetyki Drzew Leśnych
    ul. Braci Leśnej 3, Sękocin Stary, 05-090 Raszyn
  • Paweł Przybylski Instytut Badawczy Leśnictwa, Zakład Hodowli Lasu i Genetyki Drzew Leśnych, ul. Braci Leśnej 3, Sękocin Stary, 05-090 Raszyn;


In Poland, beech attains its north-eastern limit of natural range which is limited by climate continentality, soil conditions, winter temperatures and air humidity. The growth of beech stands outside the natural beech limit indicates that species possess potentially wider range. Diversity of adaptive features of beech provenances and their progeny on the basis of soil characteristics of their habitats were studied. The mineral content and basic soluble components important for grow of the trees were estimated.

Nine beech experimental plots of 1 ha area were established in selected seed stands located in forest divisions: Gryfino, Kartuzy, Zdroje, Lutowiska, Łosie, Miechów, Suchedniów, Tomaszów Lubelski and Zwierzyniec. These stands were located in compact forest areas mainly in provenance regions.

The genetic analyses were performed using isoenzyme electrophoresis method: glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT – EC – Got-2), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP – EC – Lap-1), malate dehydrogenase (MDH – EC – Mdh-1, Mdh-2, Mdh-3), menadione reductase (MNR – EC, phosphoglucomutase (PGM – EC, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI – EC – Pgi-2), shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH – EC and DNA with RAPD starters H02, H12, P06, W09, W11 (QIAGEN distribution).

On the basis of obtained results of DNA and isoenzyme markers population differentiation for chosen genetic parameters (percentage of polymorphic loci, average number of alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity) were studied and dendrogrammes of genetic distances using average frequencies of alleles were constructed.

The estimation of genetic diversity on the basis of izoenzyme and DNA analysis showed high variation of investigated populations. Important correlations were estimated for genetic diversity and differentiation of beech populations and their progeny and the level of mineral and ions important for growth and functions of plants. The importance of very high interpopulation diversity was shown.

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