Charakterystyka cech morfologicznych jodeł w drzewostanach o strukturze przerębowej Beskidów Zachodnich

Morphological characteristics of firs in selection stands of the West Beskidy


  • Andrzej Jaworski Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja, Wydział Leśny, Katedra Szczegółowej Hodowli Lasu
    Al. 29 Listopada 46
    31-425 Kraków
  • Jarosław Paluch Akademia Rolnicza, Katedra Szczegółowej Hodowli Lasu, Al. 29-Listopada 46, 31-425 Kraków


The research covered 13 selection stands in the West Beskidy and the Carpathian submontane region. The mean index of the height growth trend for fir depended on the stand layer: in the upper layer, it attained the ranging from 1.3 to 3.5 (according to IUFRO 1-3), in the middle layer – from 1.6 to 2.8 (according to IUFRO 1-2), and in the lower layer – from 2.1 to 3.8 (according to IUFRO 1–3). The relative crown length of fir trees in the upper layer ranged from 46 to 67% of tree height, in the middle layer – from 47 to 76%, and in the lower layer – from 44 to 71%. The tree-crown deformation index was similar in all stand layers: in the upper layer – 1.8-3.0, in the middle layer – 1.8-3.1 and in the lower layer –1.7-3.0, which corresponds to the crown loss of 25-50%. The highest slenderness ratio (h/d) values had firs in the upper layer (57–65) followed by firs in the middle layer (77–96), and the lowest – firs in the lower layer (87–104). The slenderness ratio for firs in the upper layer was lower than 80, which makes this layer to be considered as resistant to windbreaks and snowbreaks. The mean stem quality index for firs attained the value: in the upper layer – 1.6–3.1, in the middle layer – 2.7–3.2, in the lower layer – 2.5–3.7 representing classes 40-60 according to the IUFRO classification system. In the Beskidy fir forests, the mean value of the vitality index for firs in the upper stand layer fell within 2.3–4.3, in the middle layer – 2,2–4,2 and in the lower layer –2,5–4,7 representing the IUFRO classes 10–30. The analysed fir selection forests are inferior to Swiss selection forests with regard to stem quality, slenderness index and vitality index, while the crown length of firs in the upper layer are greater or similar to Swiss firs. In the middle and lower layers, fir crowns are frequently even longer.

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