Monitoring of stands of lung lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria L.) in Białowieża Forest District forests and practical recommendations for its protection
The veryfication of stands of very rare in Poland and Europe epiphytics makrolichen – lung lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria L.) was conduct in part of Białowieża Primaeval Forest, manage by Białowieża Forest District, on 74 trees, on whose lung lichen was occured in year 2001. Over half (55%) of all found by few years stands are characterized by very good or good thallus development, poor develop thallus are on every 4 tree. Within a few years, almost 12% of stands have disappear. The main reasons of these phenomena on Białowieża Forest District were death as the result of natural factors: breaking by wind or infection, and increase of thallus shading and its dying as result of natural processes of development lower part of forest stands.
In the case of lichen shading, it is necessary to apply over exposuring treatment, through cutting out 1–2 trees, most often from lower part of forest stand in purpose to enable light access to the thallus. In Białowieża Forest District, for effective protection of that species, there was big protection areas determine in field. In taken management-protection operations, there are provide ecological requirements and specification of this very precious and threatened with extinction species.
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