Saproxylic beetles as indicator of deformation of pine forest ecosystems
The study has been performed between 1997 and 2005 in selected Polish pine forests, showing various degree of anthropogenic deformation: Białowieża Primeval Forest, Biebrza National Park, Tuchola Woods, Kozienice Forest and Świerklaniec Forest District (Silesia). Altogether 877 (including 469 saproxylic and 109 dendrophilous) beetle species have been found. As regards saproxylic beetles, the richest (293 spp.) was Białowieża Primeval Forest, followed by Biebrza N. P. (270), Kozienice (191), Tuchola (184) and Świerklaniec (162). The greatest quantity and variety of dead wood has been recorded in the pine forests of Białowieża P. F. and Biebrza N. P. Evident, statistically significant correlation has been demonstrated between the dead wood quantity and number of coleopteran species. Evaluation of microenvironments inhabited by particular species has shown that, as regards saproxylic beetles, the most important for the preservation of biodiversity are standing dead trees, fallen logs of >20 cm in diameter, stumps and arboreal fungi. The comparison and valorization of the studied objects, according to three different (two of them original) methods, has invariably placed Białowieża Primeval Forest first. The studies in pine forests allowed to determine the model species-composition of saproxylic beetle communities in this kind of environments. 30 species have been recognized as natural forest relicts. Practical recommendations have been formulated as to the pine stands in fresh coniferous forests and poor variants of fresh mixed coniferous forests.
|Type of article