Puszcza Białowieska – obiekt światowego dziedzictwa UNESCO – priorytety ochronne

The Białowieża Forest – a UNESCO Natural Heritage Site – protection priorities


  • Anna Kujawa Instytut Środowiska Rolniczego i Leśnego PAN, ul. Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań;
    Tel. +48 65 5134253, e-mail: anna.kujawa@isrl.poznan.pl
  • Anna Orczewska Uniwersytet Śląski, Wydział Biologii i Ochrony Środowiska, Katedra Ekologii, ul. Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice;
  • Michał Falkowski Mazowiecko-Świętokrzyskie Towarzystwo Ornitologiczne, ul. Radomska 7, 26–760 Pionki;
  • Malgorzata Blicharska Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences, Villavägen 16, 75 236 Uppsala, Sweden;
  • Adam Bohdan Fundacja „Dzika Polska", ul. Petofiego 7 lok. 18, 01-917 Warszawa;
  • Lech Buchholz Polskie Towarzystwo Entomologiczne, ul. Dąbrowskiego 159, 60-594 Poznań;
  • Przemysław Chylarecki Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, ul. Wilcza 64, 00-679 Warszawa;
  • Jerzy M. Gutowski Instytut Badawczy Leśnictwa, Zakład Lasów Naturalnych, ul. Park Dyrekcyjny 6, 17-230 Białowieża;
    Tel. 48 85 6812396, e-mail: j.gutowski@ibles.waw.pl
  • Małgorzata Latałowa Uniwersytet Gdański, Katedra Ekologii Roślin, Pracownia Paleoekologii i Archeobotaniki, ul. Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk;
  • Robert W. Mysłajek Uniwersytet Warszawski, Wydział Biologii, Instytut Genetyki i Biotechnologii, ul. Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warszawa;
    Tel. +48 604625228, e-mail: robert.myslajek@igib.uw.edu.pl
  • Sabina Nowak Stowarzyszenie dla Natury "Wilk", Twardorzeczka 229, 34-324 Lipowa;
  • Wiesław Walankiewicz Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach, Katedra Zoologii, ul. Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce;
  • Anna Zalewska Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie, Wydział Biologii i Biotechnologii, Katedra Botaniki i Ochrony Przyrody, pl. Łódzki 1, 10-727 Olsztyn


Despite the fact that only parts of the Białowieża Forest are protected as a national park and nature reserves, the forest is nevertheless as a whole considered a UNESCO Natural Heritage Site, Biosphere Reserve and an integrated Natura 2000 site. In the presently ongoing debate on the conservation priorities regarding the natural value of this forest and the current bark beetle outbreak, two distinct approaches can be recognized: (1) management assumed to involve considerable interference with the forest ecosystems; (2) maintenance of ecological processes and spontaneous restoration of the forest communities. The Białowieża Forest – especially its strictly protected parts – is a „bastion” where species characteristic of ancient forests (including so-called primeval forest relicts) have survived until today. This has been achieved by maintaining the forest’s complexity in areas with considerably reduced human influence, but most of all by maintaining a full spectrum of forest communities, naturally developing forests diverse in age, species composition and spatial structure including stand dieback and breakdown. The following factors need to be taken into account in the protection of the Natural Heritage Site: (1) the internationally recognized value of the Białowieża Forest including its biodiversity, the level of preservation of forest communities and the ongoing natural processes; (2) existing documents and policies concerning nature conservation; (3) research findings from the Białowieża Forest and other natural forest complexes. The key priority is to limit any activities in this forest to an indispensable minimum, mostly concerning security close to roads and tourist tracks as well as collection of fire wood by locals. Without this strict protection, successive and slow anthropogenic transformation will result in the Białowieża Forest sharing the same fate as other forest complexes of the temperate climate zone in Europe or America and lose its globally appreciated value.

DOI DOI: 10.1515/frp-2016-0032
Source Leśne Prace Badawcze, 2016, 77 (4): 302–323
Print ISSN 1732-9442
Online ISSN
Type of article
Review article
Original title
Puszcza Białowieska – obiekt światowego dziedzictwa UNESCO – priorytety ochronne
Publisher Instytut Badawczy Leśnictwa, Sękocin Stary, Poland
Date 2016, December

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